IHBC Technical Bibliography
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Cleaning Historic Buildings

Volume 1 Substrates, Soiling and Investigation

Volume 2 Cleaning Materials and Processes

Vol 1, ISBN 1 873394 01 2 Vol 2 ISBN 1873394 11 X

Author: Nicola Ashurst

Published by: Donhead (1994)

A respected guide to the cleaning and the removal of paint from traditional materials in historic buildings. Includes stone metal and timber.


The Pattern of English Building

ISBN 0 571 13988 4

Author: Alec Clifton-Taylor

Published by: Faber and Faber (1962 to 1987)

A respected illustrated guide to regional materials and techniques found in historic buildings in England.


Stone Cleaning: and the nature, soiling and decay mechanisms of stone

ISBN 1 873394 09 8

Edited by: Webster R

Published by: Donhead (1992)

Proceedings of the international conference on stone cleaning held in Edinburgh 14-16 April 1992


Processes of Urban Stone Decay

ISBN 1 873394 20 9

Edited by: Smith B J & Warke P A

Published by: Donhead (1996)

Proceedings of SWAPNET ’95 Stone Weathering and Atmospheric Pollution Network Conference held in Belfast, 19-20 May 1995


England's Heritage in Stone

ISBN 978-0-9558660-0-5
by P Doyle, T G Hughes, I Thomas (Eds)
Publisher: English Stone Forum, 2008.
Associated website:

The papers presented at the 2005 conference on England's stone built heritage covering the historic use of stone, conservation practice, supply of stone, and planning issues associated with the use of indigenous stone.


Care and Repair of Flint Walls

by David Lodge and Adela Wright
Publisher: SPAB

This pamphlet sets out the Society's approach towards the care and repair of flint walls, which is to minimise disturbance to historic fabric by undertaking only work that is essential.


A Future for Stone in Scotland Historic Scotland

ISBN 1 900168 46 4
Publisher: Historic Scotland

The purpose of this study is to examine the existing market and explore ways in which the stone industry in Scotland might arrest the decline in the use of natural stone in buildings and, in particular, the scope for developing new products suitable for modern forms of construction.


Stonecleaning in Scotland: Research Summary

ISBN 0 7480 0452 1
Publisher: Historic Scotland

A summary of the research into the problems associated with the cleaning of sandstone.


Building Stone Resources of the United Kingdom Map

Publisher: Historic Scotland

This map is published by the Biritish Geological Survey, and is a joint venture with Historic Scotland, and other principal heritage and industry bodies


Chemical Consolidants and Water Repellents for Sandstones in Scotland

Publisher: Historic Scotland
ISBN 1 903570 20 4

This report presents the findings of a 2 year project researching the use and effectiveness of consolidants and water repellents on Scottish sandstones including comprehensive conclusions.


Stonecleaning: A Guide for Practitioners

ISBN 0 7480 0874 8
Publisher: Historic Scotland

This practical guide covers sandstones, soiling of building facades, stonecleaning aesthetics, physical and chemical cleaning methods, testing methodology, health and safety and planning.


The Consequences of Past Stonecleaning Intervention on Future Policy and Resources

ISBN 1 903570 89 1
Publisher: Historic Scotland

Whilst traditional building stone has the durability to withstand harsh climate conditions, it does decay over time by means of natural weathering. Lack of maintenance and inappropriate interventions can encourage deterioration and further damage to the stone. Detailed research was required to assess the effects of different cleaning regimes on natural stone and to quantify the damage casued. Practitioner and stonemason surveys and an investigation into future maintenance strategies were included in drawing conclusions on the effects of stone cleaning outlined in this Research Report.


The Performance of Replacement Sandstone in the New Town of Edinburgh

ISBN 1 903570 98 0 PLU 3255
Publisher: Historic Scotland

Detailed examination of 14 different types of replacement sandstone that have been habitually used in the New Town in recent times.


Stone in Scotland Historic Scotland

ISBN 92-3-104031-6
Publisher: Historic Scotland

Catalogues the Scottish stone resources


Stonecleaning of Granite Buildings

ISBN 1 900168 39 1
Publisher: Historic Scotland

Advice on the soiling, decay and cleaning of granite buildings and related testing, specification and execution of work.


Biological Growths on Sandstone Buildings: Controls and Treatment

ISBN 1 900168 40 5
Publisher: Historic Scotland

This Note aims to provide better understanding of the mechanisms of biological growths on sandstone structures, and the feasibility of their removal, with advice on appropriate methods of control.


Quarries of Scotland Historic Scotland

ISBN 1 900168 47 2
Publisher: Historic Scotland

An illustrated guide to Scottish geology and stone working methods based on the British Geological Survey Photographic Archive of selected stone quarries.


Technical Advice Note 31: Stonemasonry Materials and Skills

ISBN 78 1 904366 58 6
Publisher:Historic Scotland

The first art gives guidance on mechanisms and type of decay and the second gives a detailed description of the approaches and methods adopted when carrying out the survey and recording the results


Laser Stonecleaning in Scotland

ISBN 1 903570 79 4
Publisher: Historic Scotland

Historic Scotland investigate the response of sandstones and granites to laser exposure


Scottish Slate Quarries

ISBN 1 9035 70 04 2
Publisher: Historic Scotland

Outlines qualities of various Scottish slates and identifies Scottish quarries appropriate for further investigation with a view to reopening.


Design guide for stonework repairs

Publisher: Alnwick District Council, 1997
Area covered: North East
Associated website:

Aims to improve quality of stonework repairs and renovations. Repair, cleaning, repointing, mortars, good and bad practice


Repair and maintenance of stone buildings

Publisher: Epsom and Ewell Borough Council
Area covered: South East
Associated website:

A guide to the sympathetic repair of stone buildings and includes advice on how to maintain the building to prevent future problems.


Repair and maintenance of stone buildings

Publisher: Surrey County Council
Area covered: South East
Associated website:

Advisory Leaflet 9: An introduction to the appropriate methods of repairing stone buildings.


Maintenance and Repair of Cleaned Stone Buildings

ISBN 1 903570 80 8
Publisher: Historic Scotland

It reviews the long and short-term soiling and decay mechanisms that can result from stonecleaning and promotes the needs for a full assessment and condition recording before any remedial works.


Sources of building stone for use in Derbyshire

Publisher: Derbyshire County Council, 1999
Area covered: East Midlands
Associated website:

A schedule of quarries in and around Derbyshire which can supply suitable stone for building and landscaping.


Building Stone Decay: From Diagnosis to Conservation

by Prykril R and Smith BJ
ISBN 1862392188
Publisher: Geological Society Publishing House, 2007


Conservation of Building and Decorative Stone

by Ashurst J and Dimes F
ISBN 750638982
Publisher: Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford 1990

Historical use, geology, performance and deterioration mechanisms of stone. Structural deterioration of stone masonry structures and their repair and conservation, including the use of mortars, consolidants, cleaning methods


Conservation of Building and Decorative Stone

by Dimes FG and Ashurst J
ISBN 750638982
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann 1998

IIntroduction to the complexities and background history of stone conservation. Comprehensive description of building and decorative stones in the British Isles. How major structural masonry problems, secondary building problems and different stone surface conditions may be treated.


Epoxy Resins in Stone Consolidation

by Selwitz C
ISBN 892362383
Publisher: Getty Trust Publications, 1992

Durability and mechanical strength of epxoy resin in stone


Modern Practical Masonry

by Waralnd EG
ISBN 978 1 873394 76 2
Publisher: Donhead Publishing 2006 Facsimile of 1929 publication.

Facsimile of 1929 publication. Constructional and practical masonry. Description of tools. Description of machines in use. Details and construction. Hoisting and setting of stonework. Principles of stone cutting. Building stones. The geometry of masonry v Plane geometry and setting out. Solid and descriptive geometry and setting out. Costing and Estimating.


Practical Stone Masonry

by Hill P and David J
ISBN 1873394144
Publisher: Gower Publishing, 1988

Conservation, repair and maintenance of stone masonry including the use of lime mortars, grouting, desalination techniques, consolidation and cleaning methods


Stone Buildings: Conservations, Restoration, History

by McAfee P
ISBN 862785774


Stone Conservation: Principles and Practice

by Henry A
ISBN 978 1 873394 78 6
Publisher: Donhead Publishing 2006

The Historical Context. Restoration versus Conservation. The Role of Archaeology. Principles and Practice. Sourcing and Selection of Stone for Repair. Consolidation. Cleaning Techniques. Limestone. Sandstone. Marble. Polychrome Stone. Church Monuments. Graveyard Memorials.


Stone Masonry; Practical Building Conservation Volume 1

by Ashurst J and N
ISBN 029139745X
Publisher: Donhead Publishing, 1995

Methods of working stone,Making specialised tools, procedures for setting-out for repairs. Nature and problems of stone also includes guidance on selection. Causes of decay in stone and methods for repair of both stone and mortar.



by Steven Parissien
Publisher: Georgian Group

The Georgian Group Guide No. 12 The stonework guide has information on stone types commonly used in Georgian England, as well as repair and maintenance advice covering the repointing of stone walls, the repair of flint walls and the cleaning of stonework.


The Weathering of Natural Building Stone

by Schafferr RJ
ISBN 978 1 873394 69 4
Publisher: Donhead Publishing 2004

Classification of natural building stones, Weathering associated with natural defects inherent in the material, faulty craftsmanship and errors in the choice of materials. Atmosphere pollution in relation to weathering. Chemical phenomena.


Inform Guide - Dry Stone Walling

Conservation, repair and maintenance

Author: Historic Scotland

Associated website: http://www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/index/learning/publications/publicationsresultsdetail.htm?id=4c1eb9 d07

This INFORM aims to broaden the awareness of the importance and complexity of dry stone walling in Scotland, and offers an indication of the maintenance tasks which can be performed to prolong the life of such walls.