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spect for the integrity of the structure.
LI Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Heritage
Value (ICOMOS New Zealand, 1992). Provides comprehen-
sive definitions of the processes involved in conservation,
and sets out principles to guide the conservation of places of
cultural heritage value in New Zealand. It aims to provide a
frame of reference as guidelines for appropriate professional
practice. Although written for use in New Zealand, the basic
principles are generally applicable and follow the spirit of
the Venice Charter.
LI A Preservation Charter for the Historic Towns and Areas
of the United States of America (US ICOMOS, 1992). Sets
down a comprehensive statement concerning the impor-
tance of historic towns, neighbourhoods and places, and
states what should be done to tackle preservation issues in a
coherent and comprehensive manner.
LI Charter for the Protection and Management of the Under-
water Cultural Heritage (draft, 1995). An unusual and spe-
cialised subject, but Conservation Officers are frequently
called upon to consider such a wide range of issues, who
knows when it might prove useful? Considers fundamental
principles, project design, funding, objectives, methodol-
ogy, investigation techniques, and documentation.
The United Nations Educational and Scientific Organisation
(UNESCO) was founded in 1947 as part of the United Nations
and has promotedvarious Conventions and other instruments
for the conservation of the cultural heritage. A selection of
these which will be of interest to Conservation Officers are:
LI Recommendations on International Principles Applicable
to Archaeological Excavations (1956). Deals with general
principles, regulations governing excavations and the trade
in antiquities.
LI Recommendations Concerning the Safeguarding of the
Beauty and Character of Landscapes and Sites (1962). Con-
siders preventive measure aimed at protecting natural, rural
and urban landscape and sites, whether natural or man-
made, which have a cultural or aesthetic interest from
dangers which may threaten them.
LI Recommendations Concerning the Preservation of Cu!-
tural Property Endangered byPublic or Private Works (1968).
Considers preventive and corrective measures which should
be aimed at protecting or saving cultural property from
works likely to damage or destroy it, such as urban expansion
and renewalprojects, injudicious repair and modification,
highway works, agricultural operations, construction of
infrastructure and industrial development.
LI Recommendations Concerning the Protection, at National
Level, of the Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972). Defines
the terms cultural and natural heritage, and provides a
lengthy consideration of general principles, the organisation
of services, and protective measures under the headings
financial, administrative, scientific and technical.
LI Recommendations Concerning the Safeguarding and Con-
temporary Role of Historic Areas (1976). Another lengthy
and detailed document which provides a comprehensive set
of standards and principles for the conservation of the
historic environment.
The charters should be viewed as providing guiding
principles towards an appropriate response to particular
conservation issues, not as instant and all inclusive perfect
prescriptions. The following factors form the basis of most
of the documents: comprehensive analysis of the place,
minimum intervention in the historic fabric, precise
documentation, respect for contributions of all periods,
maintenance of authenticity and the requirement to take a
holistic view of the historic environment.

Jack Gillon is a Conservation Officer with Edinburgh City Council.
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